One of the major cities in Belarus - Mogilev
Mogilev provincial, Mogilev-on-the-Dnieper and just everyone we know Mogilev - this is the same beautiful city. The regional center of Belarus, the third largest and largest population in the country, is second only to Minsk and Gomel on these parameters. As of January 1, 2018, in Mogilev there are just over 380,000 people.
Mogilev is located on the banks of the most beautiful river Dnieper, which divides the city into two parts. The network of highways and railways looks like a loose tree fr om a bird's eye view and connects Mogilev with the largest cities of Belarus and the nearest abroad: Minsk, Moscow, St. Petersburg and Kiev.
Mogilev is not only the regional center of Belarus, but also a cultural and economic center. For the first, there are places of interest that did not survive very much - during the Great Patriotic War most of the cultural heritage was destroyed. However, the more valuable is the opportunity to see the preserved cultural monuments. Sports culture in Mogilev is represented by football teams "Torpedo" and "Dnepr", hockey club "Mogilev" and many others, here are several sports schools, swimming pools and sections.
The economy of Mogilev is represented by metal working, light and chemical industries. "Mogilevkhimvolokno" is the largest in Europe and produces polyester fibers and yarns.
Modern education in the city is represented by several universities (including the Belarusian-Russian University), profile colleges, 45 general education schools, 4 gymnasiums and lyceums.
There are a lot of sister cities in Mogilev: it's Chinese Zhengzhou, and French Villeurban, and a large number of Russian cities.
The history of Mogilev
The first mention of Mogilev in chronicle is evidence that a lock tab took place there in 1267. Since then its walls withstood the onslaught of enemies more than once, were destroyed and rebuilt.
There is no official version of the origin of the name and the stories associate the word "Mogilev" with the personal name Mogila and with the names of historical persons, such as Lev Danilovich Mogiya (Mighty Lion), the one who built the original castle.
Then, so that to make a clear view of the rich history of the city let’s represent its enlarged chronology, just the facts:
- As a part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, then as a part of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, life seethed. Mogilev was repeatedly captured by Russians, Polish and Cossacks. The citizens rebelled against the instilling of foreign religion, while opened the gates for Russians despite their rulers, yet destroyed the Russian garrisons during rebellions.
- The town was burned almost entirely in the fires of Great Northern War.
- Mogilev belonged to the Russian Empire after the partition of Poland. Catherine the II was there: she held a diplomatic meeting with Iosif, the Austrian Emperor. The reigning person together ascended to Mogilev Town Hall, observing the surroundings.
- The battle between the Russian army in the War of 1812 (commander – General N. N. Raevsky) and French (commander – Marshal Davoust) took place near Mogilev.
- During World War I, there was the General Headquarters in Mogilev in 1915, where the Emperor Nicholas II and all the prominent military of that time: Alekseev, Brusilov, Kornilov were presented.
- Years of The Great Patriotic War are marked with black mournful milestones: Mogilev was abandoned by the Soviet army as a result of bloody battles (event intensity is perpetuated in the verse by K. Simonov, a direct participant in the battles); the Nazis established a bloody occupation regime, committed arbitrariness and excesses. Several death camps were established. During the years of occupation, about 70 thousand people were killed; many Mogilev citizens were deported to work in Germany. Mogilev Jewish population suffered fr om genocide: about 12 thousand of approximately 19 thousand Jews of the city were deported to the ghetto and shot at the beginning of the war.
- The heroic underground and partisan movement deployed in the war on the territory of Mogilev region deserves a special mention. Their active, sacrificial activity weakened the enemy, helped the civilian population to survive and brought the victory closer.
Almost all of the listed pages of the past and the present mentioned milestones are reflected in the real monuments of antiquity and modern times, in the image of a modern city.
Mogilev and its sights
The history of Mogilev is rich enough: the Stavka of the Commander-in-chief and the residence of the last Russian emperor reflect the complicated and sad events of the early 20th century. During the Second World War the city on the Dnieper could become the center of the BSSR, which now only resembles the House of Soviets. Visitors of the city are greeted by the statue of the station master of the 20th century. The pedestrian street mirrors the touch of past times, now called Lenin Street, where the former City Hall, the Archbishop's Palace and the gymnasium are located. The avenue is separated by the Square of Stars, decorated with the statue of astrologer and solar clock, sending the contemplator to the zodiacal circle.
The history of Mogilev architecture
Panorama of Mogilev opens at the town hall, wh ere the theater building of the XIX century and the museum of landscape painter Vitold Byalynitsky-Birulya are located, as well as the Art Museum of the city of Mogilev, dating back to the 20th century, which combines the variety of styles.
The ecclesiastical architecture of Mogilev is represented by:
- the Orthodox sight of the early 20th century - Cathedral of the Three Hierarchs,
- The Co-Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin and St. Stanislaus, dating back to the Baroque period,
- the church and monastery of St. Nicholas, included in the UNESCO the tentative list.